The new psychoactive substances including synthetic cathinones have changed the landscape of recreational drugs since 2005. Mainly sold on internet, they represent a “legal” alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. The new technologies, their attractive lower prices and legal marketing contributed to make the new psychoactive substances become increasingly popular. However, significant physical, psychical, and addictive consequences of their unique or repeated use seem to represent a growing health concern with remaining uncertainties for the future. Emergency departments in the occidental countries admit increasing numbers of poisoned patents in relation to the use of synthetic cathinones, referred for excessive psychomotor stimulation and delirium. Cases of coma, seizures, cardiovascular compromise, organ failure and even fatalities have been recently reported.
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